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- 16-07-2015, 09:12 PM #1
Dopo aver letto diversi articoli sulla mountain dog diet e tenuto conto di come vengano rivalutati i grassi saturi, sto svolgendo una ricerca per capire meglio il loro funzionamento.
Si dividono in BCT, MCT e LCT. Gli acidi grassi a catena media, a quante pare, sono un ottima fonte energetica perche` non hanno bisogno di legarsi con la carnitina ed entrano direttamente nel mitocondrio ( a differenza di quelli a catena lunga ). Gli MCT una volta entrati nel flusso ematico vengono trasportati dalla proteina albumina.
L'unico alimento in cui gli acidi grassi a catena media sono presenti in maniera tangibile e` l'olio di cocco
L'olio di cocco e` composto al 90% da grassi saturi. Il 60% di questi sono MCT ( C12:0 44,8gx100g ), mentre il restante 40% da LCT ( C14:0 17gx100g ).
Il C12:0 corrisponde all'acido laurico
Il C14:0 corrisponde all'acido miristico, un acido grasso tra i piu` nocivi e ipercolesterolemizzante
Entrambi questi acidi fanno aumentare il colesterolo. L' acido laurico incrementa quello buono HDL e anche quello cattivo LDL, senza una notevole differenza tra i 2. L' acido miristico aumenta invece in maniera netta quello cattivo.
La domanda e`:
Mi devo preoccupare di questo 40% di LCT ? Il gioco vale la candela?
Ultima modifica di Orepex; 16-07-2015 alle 10:58 PM
- 17-07-2015, 08:13 AM #2
Stasera scrivo qualcosa in più sull acido laurico e sui saturi in generale. Una buona dose di saturi serve a sostenere livelli ormonale soddisfacenti alla crescita e alla salute in generale.
Altro alimento ricco di acidi grassi a media catena é il burro, alimento demonizzato senza criterio. Il burro biologico é un ottima fonte di grassi e molto stabile in cottura.
- 17-07-2015, 08:47 PM #3
Lo attendo con ansia perche` ho un bel po` di dubbi a riguardo
- 18-07-2015, 09:17 AM #4
Il mio riferimento è JM, ovviamente
- 18-07-2015, 09:49 AM #5
Five Reasons You Should Be Using Coconut Oil
Given the recent explosion of articles on coconut oil on the internet, you might think its widespread use is relatively new. Always ahead of the times, John Meadows has been a big advocate of its use for ages, and for good reason; coconut oil is an ideal fat source. In spite of being a staple food in the diets of countless people going back thousands of years, coconut oil has come under a lot of scrutiny in modern times. As a mostly saturated fat, it often gets a bad rap based mostly on the current (mis)understanding of the relationship between saturated fats and health by the mainstream medical establishment. Like most highly nutritious foods that have stood the test of time, coconut oil stuck around for a reason, however, it is good for you! Today we will learn why that is, how to use it, and which type of coconut oil is best for the job.
A little fatty acid biochemistry
Before we get into the details on coconut oil, it will be helpful to briefly review the biochemistry of fats, oils, and fatty acids. A molecule from any solid fat or liquid oil will always consist of one molecule of glycerol connected to three fatty acids. Fatty acids come in a variety of shapes and sizes, all consisting of a water-insoluble carbon chain with a water-soluble carboxyl group (-COOH) at the end of the chain. In some fatty acids, two hydrogen atoms are removed from a carbon-carbon bond, causing the electrons that were associated with these hydrogens to be shared among the carbons instead. This creates what chemists call a double-bond. Importantly, the extra electron density in a carbon double bond makes it much more reactive, with a tendency to oxidize and form free radicals when exposed to light or heat. Fats are classified based on how many carbon double-bonds they have, and also based on carbon chain length.
Fatty acid carbon double bond classifications:
Saturated fats:*The carbons in these fatty acids are all bound to four hydrogens, the maximum amount possible. (i.e. they are saturated- with hydrogens).
Monounsaturated fats:*have only one carbon double bond, and are slightly more reactive than saturated fats to heat and light. An example of a common monounsaturated fatty acid is oleic acid, which is found in olive oil.
Polyunsaturated fats:*Contain fatty acids with multiple carbon double-bonds. Although all of the essential fatty acids (EFAs) are polyunsaturated, more double-bonds make them much more reactive when exposed to heat or light, making them off limits for cooking.
Fatty acid carbon chain-length classifications:
Short-chain fatty acids:*The fats are typically saturated, and are 4-6 carbons long. An example is butyric acid, one of the fatty acids in butter.
Medium-chain fatty acids:*fatty acids that are 8-12 carbons long. These fats are also typically saturated. Coconut oil is highly enriched with lauric acid, a medium-chain fatty acid.
Long-Chain fatty acids:*These fats are greater than 12-up to over 20 carbons in length, and are found in both saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated forms.
As mentioned above, most naturally occurring liquid and solid fats occur in triglyceride form, not as free-fatty acids. For this reason, you will typically see short, medium, and long-chain fatty acids referred to in the triglyceride form (SCTs, MCTs, and LCTs, respectively).
Now that we have a little background in fatty acid chemistry to work with, we are well-equipped get back to the main discussion: coconut oil.
Virgin vs. refined coconut oil
There are two general types of coconut oil available on the market today; virgin and refined. The basic difference between the two is that while virgin coconut oil is produced from fresh coconuts, refined coconut oil is produced from a coconut product called ‘copra’. Copra consists of dried coconut that has been removed from the shell and is not suitable for consumption until it is further refined. Although ‘refining’ is typically considered a negative thing when it comes to unsaturated oils, this does not necessary apply to coconut oil. The type of processing that oils undergo during the refining process (also called RBD, short for Refining, Bleaching, and Deodorization) involves high temperatures and is very destructive to unsaturated oils, due to the increased sensitivity of their double-bonds to oxidation. Coconut oil is an exception to the “refined = unhealthy” rule. Lacking the fragile carbon double-bonds that are so reactive in polyunsaturated oils, the saturated fats in coconut oil are very resistant to degradation or oxidation when exposed to increased temperatures. While many of the natural polyphenols in coconuts are lost during the refining process, refined coconut oil has a higher smoke-point and increased resistance to high temperatures, making it the ideal type of coconut oil for cooking at moderate temperatures.
Virgin coconut oil is produced by two general methods. In one method, coconut oil is obtained by pressing the oil out of dried coconuts. Fresh coconut meat is first dried, then pressed to extract the oil. Although this is by far the simplest way to obtain virgin coconut oil, another method, called ‘wet milling’ produces coconut oil that is nutritionally superior to the pressed product. In the wet milling process, coconut oil is extracted from fresh coconut milk by a combination of heating and fermentation, or mechanical process using centrifuges. According to recent research, the fermentation wet-milling process produces a virgin coconut oil with the highest amounts of antioxidants (1). It turns out that the key to the fermentation/wet-milling process in increasing antioxidant yield is the use of increased heat during the extraction. This has been shown to increase solubility of the naturally occurring antioxidant polyphenols in coconuts, increasing their yield during extraction (2). This was surprising at first, because heating is usually associated with increased oxidation and rancidity, at least during extraction of oil from nuts or seeds containing high amounts of unsaturated oils. Coconut oil is the exception here; with its high proportion of saturated fats, it is very resistant to damage or degradation at high temperatures.
When it was initially published that heating during coconut oil extraction increased antioxidant yield, this led to some confusion about the relationship between heat and antioxidant activity in coconut oil. Some authors misinterpreted these studies, claiming that heating coconut oil somehow increases its antioxidant activity. Keep in mind that heat only increases the yield of antioxidants in coconut oil during the wet-milling extraction process. Most of the antioxidants in coconut oil happen to be in the form of polyphenols, which are extracted from the coconut more efficiently at higher temperatures. Although fine to use for lower temperature cooking, heating the virgin coconut oil you bought from Trader Joes will not increase its antioxidant activity!
5 reasons you should be using Coconut oil:
Now that we know a little more about coconut oil and how it is produced, here are five reasons you should be using it.
1: Medium-Chain Triglycerides (MCTs)
MCTs make up nearly 65% of the fats in coconut oil (3), which give it some unique and very useful properties compared to other fat sources. Not all fats are metabolized in the same way; they are processed differently depending on their carbon-chain length. Long-chain triglycerides (LCTs), which consist of long-chain fatty acids bound to glycerol, need to be broken down by pancreatic enzymes in the gut before they are absorbed through the intestinal wall. They are then packaged into bundles of lipids called lipoproteins for distribution into the blood stream via the lymphatic system, bypassing the liver. As they circulate in the bloodstream, their fatty components are distributed throughout the body where they burned or stored for energy.
In contrast to LCTs, MCTs do not require pancreatic enzymes for digestion. They are broken down almost immediately by enzymes in the saliva and stomach into their consituent medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs). These MCFAs are then rapidly absorbed directly from the intestines into the portal vein and sent straight to the liver, where they are burned for energy (4). In this respect MCTs are metabolized much more like carbohydrates than fats, and this is the beauty of MCTs. While LCTs are preferentially diverted to fat stores, MCTs are preferentially burned to produce energy, and are not stored as bodyfat under normal circumstances. The high MCT content in coconut oil makes it an ideal food any time a quick source of energy is needed, particularly for those on low-carb diets. While deep into a contest prep diet, every calorie counts. Low carb diets are a very effective way to keep insulin levels low and fat burning high. This is where the fats in coconut oil really shine; they are an ideal quick energy source that will not be stored as fat or cause an insulin response. The MCTs contained in coconut oil are also great for those with digestive disorders that prevent them from digesting LCTs normally.
2: Virgin Coconut oil is a great source of antioxidants
Unlike the fragile carbon double-bonds of unsaturated fatty acids that readily oxidize in the presence of oxygen, ultraviolet light, or metal ions leading to the production of free radicals (5), the saturated fatty acids of coconut oil are highly resistant to oxidation. While any coconut oil, with its high proportion of saturated fats will not promote oxidation in the way that fragile, oxidation-prone polyunsaturated fats will, virgin coconut oil has especially potent antioxidant activity.
This is one of the biggest advantages to using virgin coconut oil; it is a potent, high quality source of natural antioxidants. While human studies are limited (the mainstream medical establishment is still very reluctant to conduct clinical trials with ‘evil’ saturated fats), several animal studies out there have revealed huge potential health benefits for the antioxidants contained in virgin coconut oil. In one study published in 2006 in the Journal of Food Chemistry, rats were fed either virgin coconut oil, refined coconut oil, or the polyunsaturated fat groundnut oil for 45 days (6). In rats that were fed the polyunsaturated oil, lipid peroxidation actually increased, which also correlated with a reduction in the levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. In contrast, rats that were fed virgin coconut oil had far lower levels of lipid peroxidation, and significantly increased levels of antioxidant enzymes. Importantly, the rats in this study only received these fats at a level of 8% total calories, demonstrating the type of fats consumed, even at normal levels, can have a profound effect on oxidative stress. Subsequent studies by the same research group using this same basic experimental model have confirmed the above results, and have also noted that virgin coconut oil suppresses protein oxidation (7). So much for the argument that saturated fats are inherently bad; all things being equal, shifting fat intake by consuming more saturated- and less polyunsaturated- fats limits intake of oxidation-prone substrates, which also tends to limit free radical production.
3: Coconut oil limits inflammation
A low ratio of omega 3:6 fats in the diet is associated with increased inflammation, a possible cause of a number of chronic diseases. There are several reasons the Western diet is so heavily skewed toward omega 6 intake. A huge number of processed foods are made from grains that are enriched with omega-6 fats, and we also tend to feed the animals we eat these same grains, artificially increasing the amount of omega-6 fats contained in their meat. On the other hand, consuming a diet with a more ideal ratio of omega 3:6 fats tends to reduce inflammation and the incidence of chronic disease. With all of the focus on the ratio of omega 6 to omega 3 fats and their effect on inflammation, saturated fat sources are often overlooked. One advantage to using coconut oil as a fat source is that it is almost all saturated fat, and mostly deficient in polyunsaturated fatty acids. This gives it a neutral effect on the production of cytokines that cause inflammation. A number of animal (8,9) and human(10) studies have also shown that the polyphenols in virgin coconut oil can directly limit inflammatory responses by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation.
In one animal study in particular, IL-10 deficient mice, which spontaneously get colitis, were fed a control diet based on sunflower oil (high levels of pro-inflammatory, omega 6 fatty acids) or an experimental diet where 50% of the fats from sunflower oil were substituted with coconut oil. After 12 weeks, 8 out of 12 mice on the control diet had signs of increased inflammation and developed colitis, while only one out of 12 mice on the coconut oil diet developed colitis (11). It has been hypothesized for some time that the omega-6 heavy western diet may promote inflammatory/autoimmune disorders such as colitis by increasing inflammation. While this study has not been performed in humans, it is well-established that diets high in omega-6 fats are associated with increased inflammation and disease (12,*13). So substituting a portion of omega-6 fats in an omega-6 heavy diet with coconut oil could have a profound effect on inflammation, and may even help those with inflammatory bowel disorders.
4: Coconut oil is ideal for cooking
Because coconut oil contains mostly saturated fat, it is much more stable at higher temperatures than oils containing a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fats, making it ideal for cooking. A common misconception is that refined coconut oil is somehow less healthy than virgin coconut oil for cooking. For cooking purposes, either virgin- or refined coconut oil are both healthy choices. Importantly, refined coconut oil actually has a much higher smoke point (around 450 F) relative to virgin coconut oil (around 350 F). This makes refined coconut oil ideal for higher heat cooking applications. Use refined coconut oil any time you need to do any type of pan-frying. It is also great for cooking eggs, or great replacement for vegetable oil in any baking recipe.
5: Coconut oil is loaded with lauric acid
If there is one single reason to use coconut oil, abundance in lauric acid is a good one. Coconut oil contains in upwards of 50% lauric acid, a medium chain saturated fatty acid 12 carbons in length. While perfectly safe for human consumption, lauric acid is an extremely potent antibacterial agent. It is highly effective at killing a wide variety of bacteria by disintegrating their lipid membranes. In this way, coconut oil is sort of like Nature’s secret antibacterial weapon. For this reason, the lauric acid in coconut oil increases protection from the type of bacteria that can lead to stomach ulcers, sinus infections, cavities, food poisoning, and even urinary tract infections (3). Lauric acid was even used in one study in a liposomal preparation, where it was highly effective in killing the type of bacteria (Propionibacterium acnes) that cause acne (18). Not surprisingly, lauric acid is also a component of mother’s milk where it helps to protect nursing babies with immature immune systems from disease (14).
It is also not a coincidence that coconut oil has traditionally been used as skin moisturizer for thousands of years in many parts of the world. With broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against a variety of pathogens, it is not only an excellent skin moisturizer, but also a natural, and very potent topical antimicrobial agent.
Bacteria are not the only pathogens targeted by lauric acid; coconut oil is also very effective against at variety of viruses that are coated with lipids, including visna virus, CMV, Epstein-barr virus, influenza, pneumono virus, and hepatitis C. As with bacteria, the lauric acid in coconut oil destroys these viruses by disrupting their lipid membranes, which inhibits both virus assembly and maturation (15). Finally, the disease-fighting effects of lauric acid in coconut oil are not limited to bacteria and viruses, as coconut oil is also a potent anti-fungal agent (16,*17).
Today we learned several reasons why coconut oil should be a go-to source for dietary fats. We also clarified some of the misinformation out there as far as the relationship between heat and antioxidants in virgin coconut oil. Keep in mind that although we covered a few uses, the applications for coconut oil are only limited by your creativity. It can be added to just about anything for a great, nutritious energy boost. A spoonful in coffee or tea ads antioxidant punch and a quick burst of readily available energy. Virgin coconut oil is also great in salads, or use it instead of butter on toast. Not to mention protein shakes. The possibilities are limitless.
Marina AM, Man YB, Nazimah SA, Amin I. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic acids of virgin coconut oil. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2009;60 Suppl 2:114-23.Seneviratne K, HapuarachchI C, Ekanayake S. Comparison of the phenolic-dependent antioxidant properties of coconut oil extracted under cold and hot conditions. Food Chemistry 2009;114:1444-9.DebMandal M, Mandal S. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.: Arecaceae): in health promotion and disease prevention. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2011;4:241-7.KIYASU JY, BLOOM B, CHAIKOFF IL. The portal transport of absorbed fatty acids. J Biol Chem 1952;199:415-9.Oette K. Identification of some lipid peroxides by thin-layer chromatography. J Lipid Res 1965;6:449-54.Nevin KG, Rajamohan J. Virgin coconut oil supplemented diet increases the antioxidant status in rats. Food Chemistry 2005;99:260-6.Arunima S, Rajamohan T. Effect of virgin coconut oil enriched diet on the antioxidant status and paraoxonase 1 activity in ameliorating the oxidative stress in rats – a comparative study. Food Funct 2013;4:1402-9.Vysakh A, Ratheesh M, Rajmohanan TP, Pramod C, Premlal S, Girish KB, et al. Polyphenolics isolated from virgin coconut oil inhibits adjuvant induced arthritis in rats through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action. Int Immunopharmacol 2014;20:124-30.Intahphuak S, Khonsung P, Panthong A. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil. Pharm Biol 2010;48:151-7.Evangelista MT, Abad-Casintahan F, Lopez-Villafuerte L. The effect of topical virgin coconut oil on SCORAD index, transepidermal water loss, and skin capacitance in mild to moderate pediatric atopic dermatitis: a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial. Int J Dermatol 2014;53:100-8.Mane J, Pedrosa E, Loren V, Ojanguren I, Fluvia L, Cabre E, et al. Partial replacement of dietary (n-6) fatty acids with medium-chain triglycerides decreases the incidence of spontaneous colitis in interleukin-10-deficient mice. J Nutr 2009;139:603-10.Fernandez-Banares F, Cabre E, Gonzalez-Huix F, Gassull MA. Enteral nutrition as primary therapy in Crohn’s disease. Gut 1994;35:S55-S59.Gorard DA. Enteral nutrition in Crohn’s disease: fat in the formula. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2003;15:115-8.Thormar H, Hilmarsson H. The role of microbicidal lipids in host defense against pathogens and their potential as therapeutic agents. Chem Phys Lipids 2007;150:1-11.Arora R, Chawla R, Marwah R, Arora P, Sharma RK, Kaushik V, et al. Potential of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Preventive Management of Novel H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) Pandemic: Thwarting Potential Disasters in the Bud. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011;2011:586506.Esquenazi D, Wigg MD, Miranda MM, Rodrigues HM, Tostes JB, Rozental S, et al. Antimicrobial and antiviral activities of polyphenolics from Cocos nucifera Linn. (Palmae) husk fiber extract. Res Microbiol 2002;153:647-52.Ogbolu DO, Oni AA, Daini OA, Oloko AP. In vitro antimicrobial properties of coconut oil on Candida species in Ibadan, Nigeria. J Med Food 2007;10:384-7.Yang D, Pornpattananangkul D, Nakatsuji T, Chan M, Carson D, Huang CM, et al. The antimicrobial activity of liposomal lauric acids against Propionibacterium acnes. Biomaterials 2009;30:6035-40.Nevin KG, Rajamohan T. Beneficial effects of virgin coconut oil on lipid parameters and in vitro LDL oxidation. Clin Biochem 2004;37:830-5.
Until next time,
Bill Willis, PhD
- 10-11-2015, 01:49 PM #6
- 10-11-2015, 02:32 PM #7
Tutte cose interessantissime ma già conosciute e, semplicemente, marginali.
Io non consumo olio di cocco per opinabili proprietà antibatteriche o 'dimagranti' (quando leggo dimagrante leggo marketing, l'unica cosa dimagrante è il mangiare meno). Quello che interessa a noi dell'olio di cocco è legato al suo metabolismo energetico favorevole allo sportivo in genere e al suo metabolismo lipidico, che lo rende favorevole al bber. Punto. Tutta la mitologia sciamanica da negozio bio a noi non dovrebbe interessare.
Tra l'altro l'articolo, come spesso capita quando si tenne di demistificare, tratta l'argomento in un modo che non ho apprezzato molto. Sembra più un myth buster che un articolo scentifico.
Io ho letto molto articoli di personaggi autorevoli come Serrano, Stevenson e Starnes che ne cantano le lodi. Il dr serrano stesso lo utilizza con molto atleti che segue prima dell'attività sportiva.
Apprezzo il lavoro di Biasci, ma Serrano si piazza su di un altro livello.
Ah, io non vendo aglio di cocco. Sapetelo.
E non mi metterei mai a friggere con dell'olio di cocco. È una cosa che potrebbe permettersi solo uno sceicco saudita.
- 10-11-2015, 03:57 PM #8The most powerful motivational speeches that I have ever heard came from people who told me that I couldn't do something. You know why? Because when they told me that I couldn't do it, I was bound and determined to show them that I could.
Tell me I can't do it.
I will prove you wrong.
I will show you.
- 10-11-2015, 04:01 PM #9
Beh, io non intendo quello con il friggere, ma probabilmente sbaglio io. Quello lo intendo un... cuocere su padella unta, per evitare che si attacchi.
Quando parlo di friggere intendo deep-fry, tipo patatine
Anche io uso l'olio di cocco per cuocere, alterno quello al burro bio, a seconda dell'alimento.
- 10-11-2015, 04:09 PM #10
Ah okay, mi era venuto un colpo anche a leggere l'articolo dove dice che l'olio di cocco non è adatto alla frittura.
Mi stavo già mandando a quel paeseThe most powerful motivational speeches that I have ever heard came from people who told me that I couldn't do something. You know why? Because when they told me that I couldn't do it, I was bound and determined to show them that I could.
Tell me I can't do it.
I will prove you wrong.
I will show you.
- 10-11-2015, 04:29 PM #11
E poi non stiamo parlando di sostituire l'evoo con l'olio di cocco. Cito alcuni estratti dell'articolo:
Certamente consumare olio di cocco moderatamente non farà del male a nessuno, figuriamoci a degli sportivi, ma da qui a consigliarlo come grasso primario di una dieta sana ci passa un mare.
Nessuno ha mai parlato dell'olio di cocco come fonte primaria, io ne utilizzo una buona quantità, ma per darvi un'idea sui 110g di grassi che consumo al giorno solo 10-12 sono olio di cocco.
In tutti i casi non è minimamente paragonabile ai benefici dell’Olio Extravergine di Oliva.
E chi lo ha mai sostenuto? Il problema è che gli anglosassoni fanno fatica a procurarselo. Ma se leggete qualche mio post di questo periodo ho parlato proprio di questo: Gli americani ce lo invidiano. Io ne consumo mediamente 30-40-50g al giorno, ma solo perchè mangio spesso fuori casa e la frutta secca mi è più comoda.
La via migliore è sempre la varietà delle fonti, mi sembra chiaro! Evoo, olio cocco, carne rossa grass fed, tuorli, burro bio, salmone selvaggio, frutta secca...
Al momento non hanno dimostrato nessuna panacea contro l’obesità o effetto dimagrante. Non è che se mangi olio di cocco non ingrassi
Mi stupisco di queste banalità da un sito come PI!
- 10-11-2015, 07:32 PM #12
Assolutamente d'accordo riguardo i possibili effetti dimagranti, la frittura etc etc
Infatti ne metto appena una punta sulla padella antiaderente per non far attaccare gli albumi
Il mio dubbio era sul possibile innalzamento del LDL per via dell'acido miristico, come scrissi all'inizio del post
Metto degli estratti dell'articolo del project
<<Infatti, nel 1998, uno studio (prego notare fatto su umani, non su criceti, topi, polli, etc) comparando gli effetti di una dieta con il 21% di grassi dati da grasso di bue, olio di cartamo e olio di cocco ha evidenziato, rispetto quest’ultimo, un aumento di LDL (il volgarmente detto “colesterolo cattivo”) abbastanza consistente. Questo potrebbe essere dovuto alla presenza di acido Miristico, piuttosto che all’effetto dell’acido Laurico.>>
<<Uno studio del 2004 pubblicato sulla rivista Clinical Biochemistry ha evidenziato che l’olio di cocco può far diminuire il colesterolo cattivo LDL e aumentare il colesterolo buono HDL.
Ma io dico, li leggete mai gli studi che vengono citati negli articoli a casaccio, perlomeno gli abstract? no? O vi basate su quello che scrivono le Erboristerie online per vendervi prodotti (e poi accusate la ricerca scientifica di “complotto” con le case farmaceutiche)? Perchè questo studio confronta il Copra Oil (olio di cocco standard) con il più nobile Virgin Coconut Oil…nei topi e in vitro. (10)>>
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